There are quite a few stories out there about project failure caused by poor Organizational Change Management (OCM) or complete lack of OCM. What about successful Organizational Change Management? I have always felt like fashioning Change Management after a marketing campaign was a very good way to go. I was working on a huge worldwide program for a very large pharmaceutical company that had the best OCM I have ever seen. All of the leaders supported the change. This involved a good deal of their time as they had several events to help the users understand the importance of the change and rally around it. They communicated very frequently and in many different forms. The program leaders made sure that they were getting requirements from all locations participating. Obviously the leaders of the organization were willing to spend money to handle the people side of change as they could see there would be a return. We all know that huge worldwide programs can be the riskiest so the company did all in its power to try to ensure success.
And then there was the time I was brought into an organization to bring a great deal of change. The CIO wanted change. The PMO Director wanted change. Everyone wanted change! They just didn’t agree on what this change looked like! But they agreed it needed to be done yesterday (they really did as they had been looking for a resource to lead this for quite some time). This caused a great deal of resistance from the people who had to do the work to get the projects completed. And then there were the various businesses under the corporation who needed to come together to help develop the requirements that would work for all. I worked with the sponsors to ensure they stood behind the changes required from the program. I built targeted communications for all the various areas of the organization and communicated frequently. I didn’t have the luxury of a big budget and many resources to ensure OCM success for the program but I was a big fan of the solution so my enthusiasm kept me going. And as I said most of the people in the organization realized that several things needed to change as things weren’t going so well before the program was implemented.
When I was researching for a keynote speech I was to present, I came across a very inspiring story of a project success. The two hour house. One of the major elements of the very successful project was people working together because they really believed in the project. This project wasn’t about change in an organization but it was about people really believing in what they were doing. And that is what you want on OCM – for people to believe in the benefit to result from the project. For that particular project the “benefit” was proving they could build the house per a 2 hour schedule. In the end they were proving out the major elements they felt must be in place for success of the project (very detailed planning, risk management, only dedicated believers on the team, contingency planning etc.).
Projects are about improving or fixing things. So it should be easy to get people excited about the change that comes from the completion of a project, right? Not really. People don’t change. Status quo is easier. Here are the top reasons people are resistant to change.
1. Preparing for the change requires a lot of work. We have to learn new processes, systems, and new ways of doing things. This causes anxiety – what if I can’t do my job as well after the process changes? What if the new system is impossible to use?
2. There are uncertainties around change. We really don’t know how things are going to go after the changes are put in place. Uncertainty is scary!
3. The organization usually tells us why this is good for the business, or sometimes not. But what does it do for me? We don’t always get that message and lets face it, what’s in it for me matters. We have to take time out of our very busy schedules to get ready for the change so it helps to have strong motivation. Sometimes leaders don’t provide that motivation.
4. Many of the C levels in organizations didn’t get to the top by worrying about people’s feelings. They are not the touchy-feely type (I didn’t say everyone). They do know how to network and they can be friendly but the CFO doesn’t need to be expert in HR. So worrying about whether the people of the organization have concerns about the major changes in progress often isn’t at the top of the Executive to do list. Unfortunately, you can’t ignore that the people of the organization have to change and there are going to be some negative opinions about almost any change. This has to be taken into consideration and dealt with. Managers have to talk to their reports to understand concerns!
5. It could be that the people really understand and want the change. However, if major changes often fail in the organization, there is no trust that this project is going to succeed or even be completed. And one thing we all don’t like is feeling like we are doing a lot of work for something that might be abandoned or just won’t work.
So most Change Management theories say you must win the people of the organization over that the change is great, will be successful and will improve the lives of the members of the organization. Promoting the change as a marketing campaign (with the organization as the audience) can work wonders.
The Business Need
Sound strategic planning is fundamental to achieving business objectives. Execution of the strategy is difficult and the complexities created by out of sync and competing activities, processes, functional groups and systems across the organization create many obstacles on the road to success. Constant change, corporate politics, functional silos and many other factors affect progress toward business objectives.
A sound business plan and clearly defined goals are essential, but the key to successful execution is understanding how to accomplish those goals. This paper looks at process relationships and information flow across the business from strategic planning to achievement of the strategy, from great ideas to benefits realization. To ensure the business efficiently and effectively achieves its strategy; the organization must optimize the outcomes from their processes across the entire life-cycle.
While organizations put emphasis on improvement of individual processes, improvement across processes and systems is often neglected. This big picture transformation is more difficult to tackle. Over time, standalone systems, functional stovepipes and constant change cause issues around data, communication, processes, systems and performance. While this task of analyzing and improving the full life-cycle is difficult, the results are very valuable to the organization.
The Life-cycle Answers:
• Strategic Planning – How can the organization succeed?
• Portfolio Management – What should we be doing to achieve our strategy? How do we maximize ROI?
• Project Management – How do we best achieve these things we should be doing?
• Operations – are we effectively putting the plans in place for ongoing operations?
The Business Issues
Virtually every organization has information fragmented in multiple repositories and enterprise applications. Many obstacles keep organizations from meeting their basic needs for efficient operations, strategic alignment and profitability. Common business issues include:
o Duplication of effort and disconnected processes
o No standardization, documentation or understanding of process
o Poor metrics and poor performance
o Insufficient or bad data
o Difficulty in obtaining data
o No authoritative source of data, duplicate entry
o Insufficient applications and infrastructure to support best practice processes
o Disparate applications and systems
The Holistic view of the full life-cycle
Strategic Planning, Portfolio Management, Project Management, Program Management and Operations make up the life-cycle from concept to benefits realization. These processes exchange critical information. All of these processes contribute to achievement of strategy, thus are critical to business success.
Weaknesses in any of these areas will result in problems in the other areas as there is information feeds and dependencies between these functions. In addition, the processes in each of these major areas must be efficient and must provide quality information to the other areas.
Typical Process Area Issues:
• Strategic Planning – Objectives may not be clear and not understood by the organization and the Organization may not be able to interpret the strategy into what needs to be done.
• Portfolio Management – Many organizations don’t use objective criteria for investment selection which results in a Portfolio that is not optimized. The Portfolio may not be sized correctly to match resource capacity to demand.
• Project Management – There may be overlapping and redundant projects. There may be resource conflicts, priority conflicts and poor performance.
• Operations – Transition process may not be sufficient for a smooth roll-out. Rush to get to production can result in problems after roll-out.
The strategic goals are meaningless to the organization unless they are clear, understood by all and interpreted into the activities (Portfolio Management: selected projects) required to achieve the goals. This means that executives should not throw high-level strategic goals out to the organization with the directive to make it happen. Instead, they should have a clear idea of the major activities designed to meet the strategic objectives to ensure the organization is headed in the right direction. Leaders in Strategic Planning and Portfolio Management can work together to clearly connect the strategy with the required tactical activity.
Is it working? – Performance Management
Performance Management is an element in each of the processes as metrics and analysis are required to ensure each area is achieving its goals and to ensure benefits realization from the system as a whole. For decision makers, Portfolio Management will provide benefits realization metrics including financial benefits. Portfolio Management measures progress toward corporate goals based on the metrics for each goal and reports this information to Strategic Planning/Executives. For each Project, metrics will be established to ensure the project team is meeting the project goals. Project Performance is measured and analyzed to develop corrective actions and ensure risks are managed. This Performance information is reviewed in Project and Program reviews to ensure Project Management performance is optimized. Performance information is fed from the Project Management system to the Portfolio Management system (and/ or the Program Management system) to allow decision-making for the portfolio and programs. In Portfolio reviews, project performance is taken into consideration and failing projects may be stopped.
Where has this solution been applied and what were the results?
A division of a government agency required an analysis of all applications, systems, processes and data across life-cycle management. The analysis showed they had legacy systems that were no longer supported, high maintenance homemade tools (requiring frequent coding), applications that only had a handful of users, standalone applications for each process, data entered manually in more than one application and manual processes. The analysis led to corrective actions to eliminate or retire systems, automate and streamline processes and data feeds and implement a more robust infrastructure. An IT/ Process Roadmap was developed to provide the needed solution concept and plan.
A large company had merged many other companies into the organization. There were many scattered databases, duplication of effort, re-packaging of information for different levels of the organization, different databases, processes, and reports across the same functions. Excessive time was spent manually generating reports in preparation for management decision-making meetings. There were no standard project performance metrics across the enterprise. Portfolio management had been developed using a very complex process involving numerous Excel spreadsheets. A new life-cycle was designed to standardize and automate Project Management, Portfolio Management, IT Governance and Financial Management across the merged businesses. This solution brought all the data for these processes into a centralized database, providing greatly improved efficiency, improved data accuracy, cost and labor savings and elimination of non-value added work.
Building the Holistic Life-cycle Solution
How do you build the holistic life-cycle process to optimize sharing information across processes, eliminate duplication of tasks, and improve each process while optimizing across all processes? First, ensure high-level sponsorship with a clear understanding of the value of this effort from the top down. As this solution provides both strategic and tactical benefit and provides significant financial benefit, this holistic approach should be an easy “sell” to the leaders of the organization. However, the new life-cycle design may require breaking down barriers between functions and may bring major changes in governance and decision-making. Good Change Management planning can help ensure success of the new solution.
By mapping the current processes, systems and data flow, you will reveal gaps, duplications and problem areas. Analysis of this current situation will determine required improvements to establish the optimized life-cycle. Keep in mind that the goal is to improve individual processes as well as tying the processes together and developing good information flow and process coordination across the life-cycle.
This improved life-cycle will provide benefits of strategic achievement, a portfolio of investments with the highest ROI and improved efficiency across the organization. The transformation effort is not easy to achieve but well worth the effort.
At one point in my career, I was a manager in a small, failing division of a large company. I had just started at the company and had not discovered this issue during the hiring process (ah lessons learned!). But here I was in a not so good situation, needing to figure out a way to turn things around.
I knew the problem to be solved – Projects were usually late and our products did not always meet spec. But what was the solution?
Naturally morale was low so this was one of the first issues to deal with. Low morale and low productivity go hand in hand. It was pretty much like being in a sinking ship. Since the employees couldn’t see how to fix things, chances are that most, if not all of them were busy working on their resumes and job searching. They saw the situation as hopeless; we needed to change that attitude.
Strange as it may seem, a new, very huge challenge helped turned us around. We received a new contract to produce something that we were not at all sure we could achieve. We were concerned about schedule, specs, staffing, risk and a lot of unknowns. I convinced the staff that successful completion of this project could turn things around for the division.
We saw this challenge as a way to show our skills and ability. I continued to drive home the concept that this project was the key to our division’s success. Successful completion of this project would bring good return to the division but would also convince our VP that we were a powerful team. We owned this project and were driven to succeed. The fact that this was the biggest challenge we had yet encountered was a great inspiration. We weren’t victims of failure but rather owners of our own success.
It is a good thing that we were motivated and now thinking positively as our lean staff had to work long hours to ensure on time delivery. I found the value of being a hands-on leader on this project. I figured out all kinds of non-conventional ways to help the team (testing equipment for instance) and more conventional ways such as vendor negotiations to bring needed products in quickly.
The project was a success and did indeed convince the company of our division’s value. We kept our eyes on the goal of turnaround all through the long hours and hard work required to achieve this goal. We had a vision of a better division and made it a reality.
A thorough analysis of IT applications and systems in most organizations should reveal many opportunities for savings and improved efficiencies. Application rationalization is a process in which an organization’s IT assets are thoroughly reviewed and analyzed to develop a plan for improvements across all systems. Application Portfolio Management (APM) is a process to maintain and optimize the Portfolio of applications and systems.
The Business Drivers for Application Portfolio Management
What are the issues and concerns addressed by Application Rationalization and Application Portfolio Management? The table below shows the issues from the Business Leaders, users, IT Management and software management perspectives.
Issues Driving the Need for Application Rationalization and ongoing Application Portfolio analysis
•Inefficient Legacy Systems
•Business Interruption from System downtime
•Business needs not being met by the IT Initiatives
IT Customer Complaints:
•Takes too long to get information
•Data accuracy is suspect
•Technology issues are affecting the efficiency of the business Processes.
•Cannot obtain reports needed in a timely manner.
•Manual data entry and re-entry is required.
IT Management Pains:
•The IT Asset inventory is too large to be maintained by the limited IT resources.
•The Business does not see the value added from IT investments – Results in IT not having sufficient funds to complete required improvements.
•Database Centralization is needed as data is entered in more than one place manually or kept in individual spreadsheets, or paper forms.
•Systems are not Retired prior to the point where they fail.
Software Management Issues:
•Costs include unused licenses as the license tracking process is inefficient.
•Software is in use that is no longer supported by the vendor.
•Maintenance costs are out of control.
•Duplicate applications for the same purpose.
•Underutilized applications that should be eliminated.
Application rationalization looks at the business processes along with the IT systems, analyzing procedural issues as well as system issues to determine what needs to be improved or fixed.
What Application Portfolio Management does for the business
Application Portfolio Management extends the value of IT to the business by ensuring IT is meeting the business needs. Application Rationalization will provide cost savings and improved efficiency of business processes.
Application Rationalization optimizes the operation of the IT systems and applications, ensures data accuracy and ensures compliance with regulations. From the business perspective, the analysis ties IT to the business strategy and streamlines and improves processes.
The first step in the process is to inventory all applications, systems and processes. Questions to be answered for the entire application inventory include:
• How are the applications being used and who uses them?
• What processes does each application support?
• What data is input and output to the application?
• What is being spent to maintain, support, upgrade?
• What is the business value of the application?
• What strategic objectives does the application contribute to?
• What are the technical requirements?
• What is the level of customer satisfaction with the application or system.
• What is the risk associated with the application or system.
• Is there sufficient support for the system?
• Is the system managed and supported well?
Answers to these questions provide a clearer understanding of the state of the IT assets.
Application Portfolio Management requires thorough analysis of processes, operations, data and systems to enable good decision making regarding plans for the IT systems and applications. The analysis should look at the relationship of each asset to process, function, capability and data input and output.
Tools used for the analysis include:
• Process flow diagrams,
• Entity Relationship Diagrams for each application,
• Application budget and support costs
• Enterprise Architecture,
• functional and technical specs, user lists,
• help desk data,
• Database Analysis (requirements and data map)
• Data/ Process/ App/ System Relationships
• Associated Process information (process efficiency etc.)
Analysis of this information will identify redundant capability, costly assets (high cost to maintain), determine underutilized assets and highlight downtime issues. This analysis will be combined with the process analysis to determine required activities to optimize the portfolio.
With regard to process, the first questions to be answered: are the processes written and are they accurate? Just like applications, processes need to be easy to use and follow. Feedback from those who use the processes will determine which processes need re-engineering. A review of all processes together will determine gaps, overlaps and areas where the process flow is not optimal. This analysis will also determine opportunities for process automation.
Data accuracy and accessibility are essential to efficiency. Is data entered in more than one place? This would indicate opportunities for integration of systems. Users need to confirm that data is easy to find.
While data is gathered separately for applications and systems, processes and data, the information must be cross referenced. It is important to look at the relationships between the processes, applications and data. Which applications support which processes? What data is collected for each process? Are there labor intensive processes that can be automated? The Application Portfolio analysis will determine improvements for processes, applications, database structure and data collection. Decisions will be made to upgrade, sunset, combine and replace applications.
The analysis provided in application rationalization provides a great opportunity for IT to provide business value in cost savings and improved efficiency. Establishment of an ongoing Application Portfolio Management process ties IT to business as it clearly demonstrates the business value of the IT strategic plan.
Application Portfolio Management is an ongoing process requiring update to the inventory, information, analysis and recommendations as capabilities are added and as applications are retired. In addition, the Application Portfolio must be monitored and re-evaluated to ensure it is contributing to the business strategy.
Excellent firms don’t believe in excellence – only in constant improvement and constant change.
Major change is always difficult. While the status quo may be incredibly boring, we tend to feel more comfortable doing things the way we have always done them. Anything new has that huge element of the unknown. We can conjure up all kinds of horrible outcomes when management announces that change is coming. But this is the glass-is-half empty view of change. Organizations don’t implement change efforts for the sake of change. There had better be a good reason! However, it is going to take time for the majority of the people in the organization to see that good reason. A top goal for developing a solid Change Management plan is to keep business going smoothly during the project. Since change makes people nervous, it can lower productivity. So Change Management Planning is critical to the success of major endeavors. What are the key elements of a good change management plan?
1. The leaders lead the change. We have all seen plans fizzle when they didn’t have the proper executive backing
2. In planning for change, understand how the employees will view the change – conduct stakeholder analysis. Make plans for dealing with issues and risks.
3. Convey very clear actionable goals to everyone. Make sure that the value proposition is clear to everyone and relate the change to corporate strategy.
4. Think of the plan as a marketing campaign as this is the best way to “sell” the organization on the value of the improvement.
This planning is targeted at keeping business productivity up while undergoing major change. You won’t make everyone on staff happy but that is not realistic anyway!