Working toward Project Success

Is there any way to guarantee project success? Absolutely not, however, examining lessons learned from past projects can reveal valuable information to help ensure project success. Here I discuss processes, procedures and people to determine how to optimize project performances. Best practice project management procedures require that planning takes time and attention. Most seasoned project managers can recall a project that failed due to rushed (or no) planning. The project manager and project team are also important to project success. What makes a good project manager or project team? Corporate culture plays a strong role in aiding or hindering quality project management. It is important to keep in mind what has and hasn’t worked in the past as you plan and implement the project.

I once lead a project, which was viewed as easy by the management and as very risky by the project team. Management continuously told us this was a piece of cake (of course they wanted to believe this!). As a good project team, we conducted risk analysis and believed this to be very risky. Amazing that those of us who were going to be working on the project knew from the start that it would be one of the hardest things we ever did. All the scary facts were there: lean staffing and a late start, the team had absolutely no experience in some aspects of the project and the requirements on our statement of work did not match the signed customer contract. In addition, morale was low because we were short of resources and schedule was tight.

The project issues got worse as time went on. A key team member quit when the project had just one month left to go and some of the team members did NOT get along. Management continued to ignore the project issues, still seeing the project as an easy win.

Some very interesting things happened on this project, which resulted in its eventual success. To improve team attitude, we attended an inspiring seminar that helped us build an improved team attitude. The seminar reminded the team that you own the results of what you do. The attitude changed from “we are doomed” to “we will make this successful.” The fact that we were seen as performing poorly was both good and bad for us. This brought morale down but motivated us to “show leadership that we could succeed”. In an effort toward motivating the team, I did something I don’t think I would recommend to others but it worked for the project. I arrived at work very early and left when the last team member left. This made for very long hours and included weekends and holidays. I learned to test and run the equipment we were building. The team appreciated my hands-on approach and this helped grow a good team relationship.

All the team’s efforts were worth it in the end as the project succeeded.  We had happy stakeholders – the customer, our management and our suppliers (as part of our team). We had the satisfaction of knowing we had done well despite all obstacles.

Lessons Learned

What caused this project’s success? First we had a strong commitment to project goals. The Project goals were simple:  1. Customer satisfaction (providing the equipment they needed on time and working to spec) and 2. Turn around our poor performance record. Customer satisfaction is always a goal but this was also our first external (outside our own organization) customer, promising a good deal of future business if we succeeded. Satisfying management would change the corporate culture as they recognized our competence and learned how to improve the culture to support project management. The team was very committed to the goals. Second, the team learned the power of teamwork and the power of strong commitment to doing things right to achieve project objectives. People understood that they could get beyond their issues with other team members by concentrating on the target – to make the project succeed. We had a good amount of discussion on the effect of dependent tasks on each other. Prior to this project, the team members focused on their own tasks without paying attention to the entire project plan. Third, we included the key stakeholders on the team. We worked with the customer both in showing the project progress as time went on as well as helping the customer in tasks they needed to complete for the project. We negotiated a mutually beneficial relationship with our vendors and included them on the project team. The vendors promised their quickest turnaround when we encountered sudden specialized needs (such as quick build of custom parts). We promised a good amount of future business to the vendors.   This stakeholder participation lowered risk, lowered scope creep, and ensure that what we produced was what the customer needed. What are other ways to ensure project success?

Working toward Successful Projects

The first phase of a project’s lifecycle is very critical to its success. It is always important to complete a project in the timeliest manner but skimping on planning can lead to project failure.  Once the project has been proven to be valuable to the organization, careful planning is needed. The stakeholders should be identified and analyzed. The key stakeholders define the project’s success criteria. Rather than rushing the planning to get on with the project and complete faster, in planning, you will find areas to trim time in implementation.

How many times have you heard people say, “we never have time to plan but we always have time to do it over”? For a project to succeed, the planning must be well thought out, thorough, documented and agreed upon. It is human nature to want to rush in and get started on a project, rather than spending considerable time planning. Yet it is well known that careful planning and project estimation is key to success of the project. Good planning can actually reduce the time required for the implementation phase. Important elements of project planning are stakeholder analysis, definition of success factors, team input and risk management planning.

Stakeholder analysis requires time and thought as there are the obvious stakeholders and the not so obvious stakeholders. There are stakeholders that determine if the project has succeeded and those that do not want the project to succeed. Among the stakeholders are people competing for your resources or with agendas that oppose your project. The Project Manager needs to formulate strategy for dealing with all stakeholders; ensuring key stakeholders participate as team members and negotiating with stakeholders that are competing for the same resources.

While the project manager and project team must bring the project in on time and in budget, this does not define success.  In the end, the customer declares the project successful or failed. For this reason, the first step in Project Management is in understanding the project’s objectives. The Project Manager and team must work very closely with the customer and all stakeholders to ensure clear understanding of the critical success factors as well as understanding stakeholder issues. From the success factors, metrics should be defined to ensure the success factors can be demonstrated at the conclusion of the project.

As part of the stakeholder analysis, identify the Executive sponsor and determine the level of support provided by this project champion. If the project does not have good executive sponsorship, it is not likely to succeed.

Sometimes the stakeholders have unrealistic expectations.  Customers almost always want it yesterday, cheap and perfect! The project’s schedule, budget or scope, as defined by the client, may not be reasonable. When we were designing custom equipment for our own company the schedule was set by the customer with no regard to how long it should take, the budget was set by the customer, based on what the customer could pay and, of course, the customer set the technical specification. Therefore, the budget, schedule, specification and stakeholder expectations were unrealistic. An example of both unrealistic expectations and improper customer strategy involved a project I was handed on my first day with a company. The project team was to design a machine that would automate work that was currently done manually. When it was transferred to me, the project was several months into its timeline with no design or concept developed. Yet, the customer thought the project was still on track. I recovered the situation by explaining the issue (while begging forgiveness) and bringing the customer onto the design team. As the customer had design concepts of his own, this plan worked out.

Throughout the Project: Managing Risk and Change

Scope creep is a big issue in project management. The project plan works for the scope of the project agreed to in the planning stage. As the project progresses, stakeholders, customers and even project team members can see opportunities to make the solution even better than originally planned. While this improvement sounds good, it will lead to cost overrun and schedule slippage. The Change Management process must be well established and must be adhered to by all involved with the project. Each change needs to be clearly documented, providing the impact to budget, schedule, resources, and risk and project results. The decision to include the change belongs to the project’s customer. On one project I managed, we decided that we should go forward with most of the customer out-of-scope changes simply to ensure customer satisfaction. This backfired on us. When the project was late and over budget, the customer saw this as project failure despite all the “free” changes we provided.

While the risk taker may not see the value to risk management planning, this is very important in project management. The risk management plan is not a document to be filed away once the planning is complete. The risks must be analyzed, documented and reviewed on a regular, ongoing basis. As the project progresses, risk mitigation activities will need to be completed as the issues occur and new risks will be discovered and included in the plan. Think of risk management planning as always having a plan A, plan B, and plan C.

Toward Successful Project Management

Best practices in Project Management require looking to the past, present and future:

  • Look to the past –remembering what has worked and what hasn’t worked.
  • In the Present – the project manager and project team must pay careful attention to all that is happening on the project t each day.
  • Look to the future  – through careful planning, adjusting as required and carrying out risk mitigation activities.

 

 

How to get the Organization to see the benefit of Change

Excellent firms don’t believe in excellence – only in constant improvement and constant change.
Tom Peters

Major change is always difficult. While the status quo may be incredibly boring, we tend to feel more comfortable doing things the way we have always done them. Anything new has that huge element of the unknown. We can conjure up all kinds of horrible outcomes when management announces that change is coming. But this is the glass-is-half empty view of change. Organizations don’t implement change efforts for the sake of change. There had better be a good reason! However, it is going to take time for the majority of the people in the organization to see that good reason. A top goal for developing a solid Change Management plan is to keep business going smoothly during the project. Since change makes people nervous, it can lower productivity. So Change Management Planning is critical to the success of major endeavors. What are the key elements of a good change management plan?
1. The leaders lead the change. We have all seen plans fizzle when they didn’t have the proper executive backing
2. In planning for change, understand how the employees will view the change – conduct stakeholder analysis. Make plans for dealing with issues and risks.
3. Convey very clear actionable goals to everyone. Make sure that the value proposition is clear to everyone and relate the change to corporate strategy.
4. Think of the plan as a marketing campaign as this is the best way to “sell” the organization on the value of the improvement.

This planning is targeted at keeping business productivity up while undergoing major change. You won’t make everyone on staff happy but that is not realistic anyway!

Your opinion/ feedback please

I am working on ideas for a webinar and would appreciate feedback on topics that interest you in the areas of Project Management, Project Portfolio Management, Lifecycle Management and Process Improvement. I admit I am tempted to build on topics I have written about such as the full lifecycle management from concept to realization of benefit or how Portfolio Management can improve project or PMO performance. I also appreciate ideas for blog topics. Thanks for your feedback!

Improving Efficiency through Improved Meetings

In a discussion about meetings the other day, I was reminded about how I became a promoter of efficient meetings. I will never forget the client who bragged that he and several of his colleagues worked well into the night because they spent their days in meetings! And how much value came out of the meetings? I have found that conducting efficient meetings and inviting only the people who need to attend has helped in my popularity in leading people. People don’t want their time wasted.

Here is my list of efficient meeting rules: 1. Send out agenda. 2. Only invite people who need to attend (either they contribute to the meeting or they need to know the information provided in the meeting). 3. Keep the meeting as brief as possible (we have work to do! a little socializing is ok but is not the purpose of the meeting). There is the method of stand up meetings to ensure the meeting is kept short and on point. 4. A good Leader, Manager or Project Manager should be able to determine how often the meetings are needed so that information is exchanged in a timely manner but we aren’t all spending our days in meetings. 5. Stay on topic, parking lot disagreements. 6. Start and end on time. Have you heard of the management method of locking the door after start time – to encourage people to arrive on time? 7. Prepare Meeting Minutes and follow up action items. If you can’t summarize what was accomplished in the meeting and what will result (actions) from the meeting, what was the point to the meeting?

We have to collaborate and conduct meetings and should have some fun at work. But we don’t have to have inefficiency keeping us from getting the important things done . Your thoughts? Any other Meeting best practices? What other things do you think cause a lot of inefficiency in business?

 

 

Successfully Managing Change when the odds are against you

What can trip up the success of any project, program or major change?

Since most endeavors involve people, process and technology, any one of these areas can cause the project to fail. Good planning and design should control technology and process issues. However, the main issue with Change Management relates to people issues. We all know that it is important to carefully plan projects and programs but sometimes there is not enough attention paid to Change Management Planning. I am not talking about handling changes to scope (which is definitely important). I am talking about how important it is to have the elements in place that will result in adoption of the change and will handle the problems and issues inherent in anything new.

To ensure success of any endeavor, you need to analyze how the change will affect the organization and produce a plan developed to handle the any risks and issues identified. As I will discuss later, the plan should be similar to a marketing campaign, where materials and communications are developed to keep the benefit of the change on everyone’s mind.

First you need a good sponsor – a high level person who enthusiastically communicates the vision and helps people understand “whats in it for me?” If the people higher up in the chain don’t support the change, this is a red flag. This often happens when a new leader comes in and believes he/ she can’t stick with anything started before he/ she took over! We have all seen this kind of activity put a halt to a major transformations already in progress. I have also seen sponsors who don’t really get the change themselves – don’t really see the point. This is like having no captain for the ship!

You also need to ensure people see progress. There is more talk these days of the criticality of modularizing projects, breaking down into 6 month or less phases for quick wins so that you achieve something every few months vs. leaving all the benefit realization to the end. This helps keep positive momentum going as people are seeing benefit as the project proceeds.

Thorough stakeholder analysis gives you a good idea of the threats to the project brought about by people who don’t want to change. Change requires using something new (system, process etc). This requires time and effort to learn something new and takes people outside their comfort zone. Count on it – some people will not want to learn something new. How to deal with this?: 1. Make sure the training is good, thorough, easy to understand and ongoing support and help is provided. 2. Make sure people understand what they can gain. We would all like to believe that it should make people happy to know that a change is going to do wonders for the company but the reality is that people really would like to relate benefit back to themselves. A leader skilled in Change Management can find the benefit or determine how to ensure there is one. For example, most change should streamline, simplify, automate or shorten processes.

The most successful change management plan I ever witnessed was similar to a major marketing campaign. A very large organization was rolling out major change globally. In essence they were “pitching” the change and its benefit to the organization to help mitigate stakeholder issues and support a relatively smooth change. The company used posters, t-shirts and other give aways and social events to promote the value of the change. While most organizations don’t put a budget behind this type of activity, we all can use the technique of clearly planning a campaign targeted at organizational buy-in of the change. Change Management activity should be included in the Communications plan with stakeholders provided with ongoing project progress as well as reminders of the purpose and benefit of the project.

 

How Project Portfolio Management leads to Project Success

The IT PMO of a large organization was suffering from failing projects.  The issues facing the organization were:

  • Continuous mergers and acquisitions resulted in stove-piped, independent businesses with no incentive to work toward common goals,
  • Division between Business and IT,
  • Resistance to change,
  • No application/ systems standards (multiple solutions for the same capability),
  • No view of resource capacity/ demand,
  • No single view of all projects,
  • Failing projects.

The problem:

Important projects were not getting done.  With no prioritization and no view of true resource demand/ capacity, low-value projects were gobbling up resources needed by high-value projects. This caused the more valuable projects to be stalled or stopped in mid-implementation. This also resulted in corners being cut when project managers tried to shotgun projects through the lifecycle to ensure they did not lose precious resources. Project planning was one key phase that was shortened or skipped altogether , leading to a higher rate of project failure.

Projects under a certain budget limit could be submitted and were automatically put in the project queue to be resourced within a week. Anyone could submit a project request and provide very minimal supporting information.

What didn’t work:

The organization had tried different methods for prioritizing (such as having the head of finance label projects as high-, medium-, or low-priority). However, these methods yielded only top-priority rankings for virtually all projects.

For higher cost projects, IT Governance did exist. In the fall of each year, the IT site directors would provide business case information for projects they wanted to implement in the coming year. The regional leader would review and accept the projects he or she deemed priority for the site; and an oversight committee eliminated additional projects from the plan to lower the total site budget to match what they could allocate. The results of these meetings determined each site’s budget. In the following year, the sites were free to substitute other projects for those that had been approved, making this an exercise in obtaining funding, not in proper portfolio planning.

The Fix:

The PMO leaders determined that the two main issues to be resolved were lack of resource management and prioritization. They concluded that implementing project portfolio management could resolve both issues and result in successful planning and project management.

The goals for the Portfolio Management implementation were as follows:

  • Tie projects to the corporate strategy,
  • Develop business cases for all proposed projects,
  • View projects across all sites to determine opportunities to combine efforts,
  • Improve project planning,
  • Develop solutions standards:
    • Catalog accepted applications for specific capabilities.

They developed a model for scoring project requests which would serve as the basis for prioritization. The model was based on research of best practices in the industry and tied to the organization’s strategy. Once the model was in place, it was used to prioritize the projects submitted for the yearly budget to demonstrate to the decision makers why they should fund the proposed projects. They now had clear insight into what should be done (prioritization) and what could be done (resource management). Including portfolio management in the project lifecycle greatly improved the organization’s ability to successfully implement projects. It is well known that Portfolio Management is intended to maximize the benefit from an organization’s portfolio of projects; but it also helps ensure project success by “sizing” the portfolio to fit the available resources.

Why do we need a method for prioritizing the investments of our business? How Portfolio Management helps

Why is Portfolio Management a good idea?

People have lots of ideas to make their businesses better.
Sometimes these ideas don’t work out so well once implemented. That’s pretty
much why I’m so interested in Portfolio Management. In my career in project management,
I have implemented several projects that didn’t have solid business cases for
the investments. In fact, I have managed projects that I felt were doomed to
fail; but the policy was that if the organization wanted the project
implemented, it was to be done.

Here are some examples of ideas that should have been fully
vetted:

  • The plant wants a specific manual operation
    automated – put in a request, and a machine will be built!

    • The engineers tasked with the project weren’t
      allowed to perform a feasibility study or voice their gut opinion that it
      probably wasn’t going to meet the factory’s tight specifications . It’s not a
      good feeling to build something that you suspect will eventually be scrap!
    • Under the concept of implementing something that
      should provide more profit for the business:

      • Our airline needs more money, so let’s start
        charging for soft drinks, water and juice. We get all the profit from that.

        • Did they think customers would like that?
  • We have been offering videos and streaming in
    one package. We can make more money if we break these offerings up and charge
    the customers more.

    • Again, if the customers don’t like the idea, it
      doesn’t work.
  • Let’s make our product taste just like the
    competition’s product.

    • But our product is already the leader in the
      industry!
    • Why can’t we fix things before they break?
      • This was actually a very sound request from
        middle management:  They proposed plans
        to take preventive measures and plan for the end of life for equipment.  However, the organization’s leaders couldn’t
        grasp the potential savings and efficiency of this concept, so the plan wasn’t
        implemented.
      • I don’t want prioritization. I just want a
        percentage increase in budget every year and then I’ll do what I want with the
        funds. (Guess what – I also don’t want people to know what I do with the money
        just in case my plans don’t work out.)
      • One product that became a failure in its target
        market had come from a company executive’s wife.

        • “It sounds like a good idea” isn’t really a business case!

These examples point to the reasons why Portfolio Management
works. Portfolio Management determines how to objectively judge which
investments will provide the best return and help the organization meet its
strategic goals. The Portfolio Management process requires justification for
spending. This seems like a very logical concept and, in fact, it is. However,
many organizations still don’t have structured approaches for deciding what
gets funded. Many times it’s simply a matter of leaders discussing pet
projects. Sometimes those who have the most influence or scream the loudest get
their projects funded. These leaders see Portfolio Management as a threat to
the strategy that is currently working for them. In fact, I have seen Portfolio
Management implementations sabotaged by people who didn’t want to lose their
budgets because they would be required to justify their allocations.

What kind of bad ideas have you seen implemented? How does
your organization make decisions to fund projects?